Timothy Lane

Timothy Lane


Office phone number6638-2736 #1252


  • Science of Consciousness
  • Science of Self
  • Philosophy of Consciousness
  • Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

The focus of my research concerns the nature of self, consciousness, and the relationship between these. I am concerned with conceptual, clinical, and empirical/experimental aspects. For a recent statement of my views see,


For a recent statement of how I regard alternative views on self and consciousness see,


In philosophical discussions I have developed my views with reference to the Immunity-to-error Principle, e.g.,


And with reference to the Higher-Order Theory of Consciousness, e.g.,


I have also applied my ideas in experimental, neuroimaging contexts, e.g.,



A conceptual version of this can be found here,


And I have applied these ideas in the context of clinical trials targeting pathologies such as Major Depressive Disorder, e.g.,


As well as other neuroimaging investigations of Major Depressive Disorder,


Likewise the investigation of pathologies like schizophrenia,


I have also applied these ideas to the investigation of sleep, e.g.,


And illusions, e.g.,


In addition, I have written about the nature of rationality,


And the status of contemporary psychiatry,


My principal research focus now is a clinical trial investigating the effects of zolpidem on patients who suffer from Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (“vegetative state”). This project includes fMRI, FDG-PET scanning, as well as the administration of zolpidem. The ongoing clinical trial is, in part, an extension of previous work by our team,


Finally, I am in the beginning stages of developing a clinical trial that concerns General Anesthesia.

For more information on my research, pedagogy, or other duties, see these URLs:









In my schoolboy days, my mentors included Carl G. Hempel, Julian Jaynes, Herbert Simon, and Tony O’Dea. If anything true and non-trivial is discovered through my investigations, it is due to the intellectual influence of these scholar-scientists. All failings, however, reflect the failings of my rational imagination. By creating GIMBC and the Brain & Consciousness Research Centre (BCRC), I have sought to rejuvenate the wisdom of my mentors. GIMBC and BCRC were established, in part, to commemorate Hempel, Jaynes, Simon, and O’Dea.


List of recent publications:

2021 (February) Occipital gamma—aminobutyric acid and glutamate-glutamine

     alterations in major depressive disorder: An MRS study and meta-analysis.

     Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging (Corresponding author)


2020 (December) Reactivity of intrinsic activity temporal structure to a behavioural state change is correlated with depressive symptoms. European Journal of Neuroscience 52, 12, 4840-4850. (Corresponding author) DOI: 10.1111/ejn.14858

2020 (October) The minimal self hypothesis. Consciousness & Cognition.

     https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2020.103029 (Single author)

2020 (July) Spontaneous thought-related network connectivity predicts sertraline effect on major depressive disorder. (1st author, equal contribution) Brain imaging and behavior. DOI: 10.1007/s11682-020-00364-w

2020 (July) Somebody is home. Cognitive Neuropsychology 37, 3-4, 193-196. 

    (Single author). DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2020.1738364

2020 (April) Intrinsic brain activity of subcortical-cortical sensorimotor system and psychomotor alterations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 218, 157-165. (Corresponding Author)

2020 Abnormal functional relationship of sensorimotor network with neurotransmitter-related nuclei via subcortical-cortical loops in manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 46, 1, 163-174.  (Co-authored with Martino, Magioncalda, Conio, et al.)

2019 (November 22) Temporal preparation, impulsivity and short-term memory in

depression. (Co-authored with Hsu, Tzu-Yu, Lee, H-C, & Marcus Missal)

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.

2019 (August 2) Indication of Dynamic Neurovascular Coupling from Inconsistency Between EEG and fMRI Indices Across Sleep–Wake States. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. DOI:10.1007/s41105-019-00232-1 (Corresponding author)

2019 Instability of brain connectivity during nonrapid eye movement sleep reflects altered properties of information integration. Human Brain Mapping 40, 11, 3139-3410. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.24590 (Co-authored with Kung, Wu, et al.)

2018 (July) Strong Circadian Rhythms in the Choroid Plexus: Implications for

    Sleep-Independent Brain Metabolite Clearance. Journal of experimental neuroscience 12,1-4. (Co-authored with Myung, Wu, and Simmoneaux)

2018 (June) The neurophysiological basis of the discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep during sleep onset period: an EEG-fMRI study. Sleep 41, 6, zsy056, https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy056 (Corresponding author)

2018 (May) Vascular-metabolic and GABAergic inhibitory correlates of neural variability modulation. A combined fMRI and PET study. Neuroscience 379, 142-151. (Corresponding author)

2018 (March) Measuring Consciousness. Scientific American (Taiwan Edition) 193, 38-42. (Co-authored with P. Tseng, C. Wu, T. Hsu, J. Myung, N. Duncan)

2018 (February 15) Abnormal resting state connectivity in a substantia nigra-related striato-thalamo cortical network in a large sample of first-episode drug naïve patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 44(2):419-431. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbx067. (Co-authored with Matino, Magioncalda, et al.)

2018 (January 13) Too fast or too slow? Time and neuronal variability in bipolar disorder—A combined theoretical and empirical investigation. (Co-authored with Northoff, Magioncalda, et al.) Schizophrenia Bulletin 44(1):54-64. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbx050

2017 Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. Academic Press. (Co-edited with T. W. Hung.)

2017 Rationality and its contexts. In Hung, T. W. and Lane, T. Eds. Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. London: Academic Press.  pp. 3-13. (Single author)

2017 Is depressive rumination rational? In Hung, T. W. and Lane, T. Eds. Rationality: Constraints and Contexts.London: Academic Press. (First and corresponding author) pp. 119-143.

2017 (December 12) Switching to the rubber hand. Frontiers in Psychology—Cognitive Science. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02172. (Equal contribution and corresponding author)   

2017 (October) Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is impaired in schizophrenia: A pilot study.  Schizophrenia Research 188:63-67. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.01.015.  (Co-authored with Ku, et al.)

2017 (April 2) Philosophy and Psychiatry: Problems, intersections, and new perspectives.  Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 16(4). https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/philosophy-and-psychiatry-problems-intersections-and-new-perspectives/ (Single author)

2017 Timing disownership experiences in the rubber hand illusion. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2(1) 1-14. (First and corresponding author) DOI: 10.1186/s41235-016-0041-4

2017 (January 5) Attention and memory-driven effects in action studies.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, pp. 48-49. doi:10.1017/S0140525X15000965, e229 (Corresponding author)

2016 (July) The trajectory of self. Cell: Trends in cognitive sciences. 20, 7, 481-482. (First and corresponding author).

2016 Spontaneous activity in default-mode network predicts ascription of self-relatedness to stimuli. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience 11, 4, 693-702. (Co-authored with P. Qin, G. Northoff, et al.)

2016 Resting state glutamate predicts pre-stimulus alpha increase during  

    self-relatedness—A combined EEG-MRS study on rest-self overlap. Social

Neuroscience 11, 3, 249-263 (Corresponding author)

2015 Self, belonging, and conscious experience: A critique of subjectivity theories of consciousness.  In R. Gennaro, Ed. Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 103-140.   (Single author)

2015 GABAA Receptor Deficits Predict Recovery in Patients With Disorders of

Consciousness: A Preliminary Multimodal [11C] Flumazenil PET and fMRI

Study. Human Brain Mapping 36, 10, 3867-3877 (Co-authored with P. Qin, G.

Northoff, et al.)

2014 When actions feel alien: An explanatory model.  In Hung, T. W. Ed. Communicative Action.  Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 53-74.  (Single author)

2012 Timing the rubber hand illusion: Owning the rubber hand involves substitution, not addition. Perception (Supplement), 41, 212.   (Co-authored with Su-Ling Yeh and An-Yi Chang.  

2012 Toward an Explanatory Framework for Mental Ownership. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11(2): 251-286. (Single author)

2011 Self-Consciousness and Immunity. The Journal of Philosophy 108, 2: 78-99. (First and corresponding author)

2010 The Threshold of Wakefulness, the Experience of Control, and Theory Development.  Consciousness and Cognition 19: 1095-1096. (Co-authored with C. M. Yang)

2010 What Subjective Experiences Determine the Perception of Falling Asleep During the Sleep Onset Period? Consciousness and Cognition 19: 1084-1092.  (Co-authored with C. M. Yang et al.)

2010 The Ethics of False Belief.  EurAmerica Vol. 40, 3: 591-633. (Single author)

2010 Issues at the Intersection of Ethics, Evolution, and Neuroscience.  EurAmerica Vol. 40, 3: 519-527.  (Single author)

2010 Mental Ownership and Higher-Order Thought Analysis (July) 70, 3: 496-501.  (First and corresponding author)

2009 Higher-Order Thought and Pathological Selves: The Case of Somatoparaphrenia Analysis (October) 69: 661-668.  (Corresponding author and equal contribution)

2008 Higher-Order Thought and the Problem of Radical Confabulation The Southern Journal of Philosophy XLVI (1): 69-98. (First and corresponding author)