Current Employment: Joint Appointment (Taipei Medical University and Academia Sinica):
Primary Appointments (Taipei Medical University): Philosophy of Mind Chaired Professorship (August 1, 2012~); Dean, College of Humanities and Social Sciences (August 1, 2014~); Director, Brain and Consciousness Research Center (March 1, 2015~)
Secondary Appointment (Academia Sinica): Research Fellow, Institute of European and American Studies. January 1, 2013~
Associate Editor: Consciousness and Cognition. October, 2016~
Adjunct Principal Investigator: National Chengchi University, Research Center for Mind, Brain, and Learning. February 1, 2013~
Fields of specialization:
Science and philosophy of consciousness
Philosophy of Mind
Areas of competence:
Philosophy of Psychology/Cognitive Science/Neuroscience
Philosophy of Science
St. Louis University High School (St. Louis), 1967-1971
Indiana University (Bloomington, IN), BA. August ’71 to December ’73. Area of Study: Pre-Med. (Completed in five semesters.)
University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA). Ph. D. August ’74 to August ’87. Areas of Study: Philosophy and Psychological Anthropology. (Work toward Ph.D. interrupted by several years of employment.)
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO). Ph.D. 1991-1992 &1995-1996. Areas of Study: Philosophy/Neuroscience/Psychology (Work toward 2nd Ph.D. unfinished.)
Prior Academic Employment:
Joint Appointment: Professor in the Graduate Institute of Neuroscience and Principal Investigator for the Research Center for Mind, Brain and Learning, at National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (Assistant, Associate and Full Professor, National Chengchi University—1984-2012).
Associate Dean, College of Science, National Chengchi University, 2012-2015. (Offer declined.)
Adjunct Professor: Department of Philosophy, National Chung Cheng University (Chiayi, Taiwan), 2008-2012.
Chief, Office of Academic Evaluation, National Chengchi University, 2006-2008
Adjunct Professor: Department of Philosophy, National Chengchi University, 1992-2008.
Instructor, Washington University in St. Louis, 1995-1996
Instructor, University of Pittsburgh, 1986-1987
Visiting Research Associate, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, 1981-1984
Instructor, University of Maryland, 1980
Instructor, Duquesne University, 1979
Teaching and Research Fellow, University of Pittsburgh, 1974-1978
Principal Non-Academic Employment: Missouri-Pacific Railroad; Arkansas-Best Freight. (Member, International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Local 600.)
Academic Awards and Honors:
National Honor Society, 1967-1971 (Anna F. Backer Chapter)
Joseph and Frances Morgan-Swain Fellow, 1971-1973.
National Defense Education Act Fellow, 1976-1978.
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellow, 1981-1982.
National Institute of Mental Health Fellow, 1982-1984.
Pacific-Cultural Foundation Fellow, 1984-1985.
Outstanding Pedagogy Award, National Chengchi University, 2002-2003.
Innovative Course Design Award, Ministry of Education, 2006.
Scholarly Research Internationalization Award, National Chengchi University, 2007.
Outstanding Research Award, National Chengchi University, 2010-2011
National Science Council Special Achievement Award, 2011-2012 (100-3114-C-004-001-ES)
National Science Council Outstanding Research Award, 2012. (Taiwan National
Science Council/Ministry of Science and Technology, highest award for
achievement in research.).
Excellence in Research Award, National Chengchi University, 2012. (The highest
award for research bestowed by National Chengchi University.).
National Science Council Special Achievement Award, 2012-2013.
Distinguished Research Professorship, Institute of Neuroscience, National Chengchi
University, 2012-2015. (Offer declined.)
Major External Research Grant Award, Taipei Medical University, 2014.
Wayne G. Basler Chair of Excellence for the Integration of the Arts, Rhetoric, and Science, Tennessee State University, 2014-2015.
Major External Research Grant Award, Taipei Medical University, 2016.
Taipei Medical University, Philosophy of Mind-Chaired Professorship, February 1, 2012~Present.
Scholarships, Fellowships, and Grants:
Tuition Assistance Scholarship, St. Louis University High School (St. Louis, MO). 1967-1971.
Joseph and Frances Morgan-Swain Fellowship, Indiana University (Bloomington, IN), 1971-1973.
Teaching Assistant and Teaching Fellowships, University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA), 1974-1979.
National Defense Education Act Fellowship, 1976-1978.
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowship, 1981-1982.
National Institute of Mental Health Fellowship, 1982-1984. (1 F31 MH 08417-01)
Pacific-Cultural Foundation Fellowship, 1984-1985.
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO) Fellowship, 1991-1992 & 1995-1996.
PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2008-2011. Title: “Self and Conscious Experience.” Grant Number: 97-2410-H-004-154-MY3. Amount: 70,290 (USD).
PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2011-2014. Title: “Belongingness:
the mental ownership theory and research program.” Grant Number:
100-2410-H-004-139-MY3. Amount: 83,419 (USD)
PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2013-2014. Title: “Does neural
activity during reward predict self-relatedness?” Grant Number:
102-2420-H-038-002-MY2. Amount: 79, 354 (USD)
PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2013-2015. Title: “Self, Consciousness, and Neurophilosophy.” Grant Number: 102-2420-H-038-001-MY3. Amount: 67, 290 (USD)
PI—Taipei Medical University, Laboratory Start-Up Grant, 2013-2014.
PI—National Science Council Research Grant, 2013-2016. Title: “Cultivation of Young Scholars: Philosophy of Consciousness.” Grant Number 102-2420-H-038-004-MY3. Amount: 350,290 (USD)
PI—Taipei Medical University, Research Team Grant (Brain and Consciousness),
2013~2015, Amount: 58,064 (USD)
Co-PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2014~2015. “The
neurophysiological basis of consciousness transition during sleep onset period: an
fMRI study.” MOST 103-2420-H-004-MY2. Amount: 72,096 (USD).
PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2014~2015. “Predictions
of therapeutic effects of Zolpidem in disorders of consciousness patients—a
multimodal imaging study.” Grant Number: MOST 103-2811-H-038 -002.
Amount: 29,742 (USD).
PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2014~2017. Title: “An fMRI Study of Moral Judgment: The modulating effects of emotion and religious belief.” Grant Number: MOST 104-2420-H-038-001-MY3. Amount: 122,806 (USD).
PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2016-2017. Title: “Predicting Therapeutic Effects of Zolpidem in Disorders of Consciousness Patients.” Grant Number: MOST 105-2410-H-038-004-MY1. Amount: 33,612.903 (USD)
PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2016-2019. Title: “A Multi-Modal Investigation of Self-Consciousness in Major Depressive Disorder.” Grant Number: MOST 105-2632-H-038-001-MY3. Amount: 218,935 (USD).
PI—Ministry of Science and Technology Research Grant, 2017-2020. Title:
“Predicting Therapeutic Effects of Zolpidem in Disorders of Consciousness
Patients.” Grant Number: 106-2410-H-038-003-MY3. Amount: 150,000 (USD)
Recent Published and Forthcoming Manuscripts:
(In preparation) Baseline alpha-band spectral power differences predict susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion.
(Under review) Thalamus-SACC-Insula Connection is a Central Neuronal Signature of Consciousness. (Co-authored with Qin, Northoff, et al.)
(Under review) Switching to the rubber hand. (Co-authored with Su-Ling Yeh)
(Under review) Vascular-metabolic and GABAergic inhibitory modulation of neural variability: A combined fMRI & PET study. (Co-authored with Duncan, Qin, et al.)
(Under review) The Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep State Misperception during Sleep Onset Period: an fMRI study. (Co-authored with Hsiao, Yang, et al.)
2017 (In print) Neuroexistentialism, Eudaimonics, and Positive Illusions. In B. Kaldis, Ed. Mind and Society: Cognitive Science Meets the Social Sciences. Synthese Library Series, Springer. (Co-authored with Owen Flanagan.)
2017 (June 10) Abnormal resting state connectivity in a substantia nigra-related striato-thalamo cortical network in a large sample of first-episode drug naïve patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin DOI: 10.1092/schbul/sbx067
(Co-authored with Matino, Magioncalda, et al.)
2017 (May 19) Too fast or too slow? Time and neuronal variability in bipolar disorder—A combined theoretical and empirical investigation. (Co-authored with Northoff, Magioncalda, et al.) Schizophrenia Bulletin DOI:
2017 (April 2) Philosophy and Psychiatry: Problems, intersections, and new persepctives. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 16(4). https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/philosophy-and-psychiatry-problems-intersections-and-new-perspectives/ (Single author)
2017 Timing disownership experiences in the rubber hand illusion. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2(1) 1-14. (First and corresponding author) DOI: 10.1186/s41235-016-0041-4
2017 Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is impaired in schizophrenia: A pilot study. Schizophrenia Research (Co-authored with Ku, Chi, et al.)
2017 (January 5) Attention and memory-driven effects in action studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, pp. 48-49. doi:10.1017/S0140525X15000965, e229 (Corresponding author)
2016 (July) The trajectory of self. Cell: Trends in cognitive sciences. 20, 7, 481-482. (First and corresponding author).
2016 Spontaneous activity in default-mode network predicts ascription of self-relatedness to stimuli. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience (Co-authored with P. Qin, G. Northoff, et al.)
2016 Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. Elsevier-Oxford (Co-edited with T. W. Hung.)
2016 Rationality and its contexts. In Hung, T. W. and Lane, T. Eds. Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. Elsevier-Oxford. pp. 3-13. (Single author)
2016 Are depressive ruminations rational? In Hung, T. W. and Lane, T. Eds. Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. Elsevier-Oxford.
(First and corresponding author) pp. 119-143.
2016 Resting state glutamate predicts pre-stimulus alpha increase during
self-relatedness—A combined EEG-MRS study on rest-self overlap. Social
Neuroscience 11, 3, 249-263 (Corresponding author)
2015 Self, belonging, and conscious experience: A critique of subjectivity theories of consciousness. In R. Gennaro, Ed. Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 103-140. (Single author)
2015 GABAA Receptor Deficits Predict Recovery in Patients With Disorders of
Consciousness: A Preliminary Multimodal [11C] Flumazenil PET and fMRI
Study. Human Brain Mapping 36, 10, 3867-3877 (Co-authored with P.
Qin, G. Northoff, et al.)
2014 When actions feel alien: An explanatory model. In Hung, T. W. Ed. Communicative Action. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 53-74. (Single author)
2012 Timing the rubber hand illusion: Owning the rubber hand involves substitution, not addition. Perception (Supplement), 41, 212. (Co-authored with Su-Ling Yeh and An-Yi Chang.
2012 Toward an Explanatory Framework for Mental Ownership. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11(2): 251-286. (Single author)
2011 Self-Consciousness and Immunity. The Journal of Philosophy 108, 2: 78-99. (First and corresponding author)
2010 The Threshold of Wakefulness, the Experience of Control, and Theory Development. Consciousness and Cognition 19: 1095-1096. (Co-authored with C. M. Yang)
2010 What Subjective Experiences Determine the Perception of Falling Asleep During the Sleep Onset Period? Consciousness and Cognition 19: 1084-1092. (Co-authored with C. M. Yang et al.)
2010 The Ethics of False Belief. EurAmerica Vol. 40, 3: 591-633. (Single author)
2010 Issues at the Intersection of Ethics, Evolution, and Neuroscience. EurAmerica Vol. 40, 3: 519-527. (Single author)
2010 Mental Ownership and Higher-Order Thought Analysis (July) 70, 3: 496-501. (First and corresponding author)
2009 Higher-Order Thought and Pathological Selves: The Case of Somatoparaphrenia Analysis (October) 69: 661-668. (Corresponding author and equal contribution)
2008 Higher-Order Thought and the Problem of Radical Confabulation The Southern Journal of Philosophy XLVI (1): 69-98. (First and corresponding author)
Recent Invited/Select Conference Presentations and Lectures:
2017 (November) Developing Models of Artificial Intelligence and Empathy. Artificial Intelligence Workshop, co-hosted by National Taiwan University and National Chengkung University, Taipei, Taiwan. November 4.
2017 (September) Consciousness and Self: Levels, Limits, and the Spontaneous Brain, Symposium Organizer. The 11th International Conference on Cognitive Sciences. September 1-3.
2017 Chang L-A, Tseng P, Lane TJ* (2017) Dissociation of intention and personal force in judgments of moral dilemma. The 11th International Conference of Cognitive Science.
Chang L-A, Tseng P, Lane TJ* (2017) Ill intention is the key to trigger the moral alarm: Cultural variations in moral judgments in harm and purity domains. The 11th International Conference of Cognitive Science.
2017 (June) Levels of consciousness and the brain’s intrinsic activity. 21st Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Beijing, China. June 13-16.
2017 (February 27) The concept of “self” in neuroscience research. State University of Malang, Indonesia.
2017 (February 13) The brain and ethics: A personal view. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Chiayi Hospital. Chiayi City, Taiwan.
2016 (December 12) Self, ketamine, and depression. National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry. Taipei, Taiwan.
2016 (October 26) Multi-modal investigations of neurological and psychiatric pathology. Neuroscience, pulmonary diseases, and dengue fever. University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
2016 (October) One type of Major Depressive Disorder: Brooding, self-focused rumination and elevated glutamatergic activity in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. Taiwan Psychological Association Annual Conference. Tainan, Taiwan.
2016 (August) Plenary Lecture: The trajectory of self. The 3rd Conference on Contemporary Philosophy in East Asia. Seoul National University. Seoul, Korea.
2016 (June) Altered rest-stimulus interaction during self-processing in major depressive disorder. (Co-authored with Niall Duncan et al.) 20th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Buenos Aires, Argentina. June 15-18.
2016 (February) Self in the brain. International Neuroscience Symposium II. Taipei, Taiwan.
2015 (November) Resting state glutamate predicts elevated pre-stimulus alpha during self-relatedness – A combined EEG-MRS study on rest-self overlap. Symposium for Body, Mind, and Culture—2015 Forum of MOST Research Projects on Brain Imaging for Mind Science. National Taiwan University, November 14-15.
2015 (November) Self and consciousness doubly dissociate. Taiwan Philosophical Association Annual Conference. National Taiwan University. November 7-8, 2015.
2015 (August) A dispositional HOT theory of belonging: Assessing the neural plausibility of HOT Theory’s dispositional account of self and belonging. Higher-Order Theories and Mental Qualities: A conference in honor of David Rosenthal. Taipei, Taiwan. August 3-5, 2015.
2015 (July) Oral Presentation: Implications of the “Lazarus Response” for understanding the relationship between for-me-ness and phenomenal characters. 19th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Paris, France. July 7-10.
2015 (May) Neuroscience and philosophy: Closing the gap. Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University. Chungli, Taiwan.
2015 (April) Religion and the Brain. East Tennessee State University—The Wayne G. Basler Lecture.
2015 (February) Loss of self and consciousness: Somatoparaphrenia, sleep, vegetative state, and MTBI. Center for Neural Regenerative Medicine, Taipei Medical University.
2014 (October) Philosophy and the Brain. Shuang Ho Hospital. New Taipei City, Taiwan.
2014 (October) In search of the self: From The Exorcist to Vegetative State Patients. East Tennessee State University—The Wayne G. Basler Lecture.
2014 (August) Lane, T. and Northoff, G. “Is depressive rumination rational?” IEAS Conference on Reason and Rationality. Academia Sinica. Taipei, Taiwan.
2014 (July) Lane, T., Yeh, S. L., et al. The “lingering alpha effect”: Baseline alpha-band spectral power differences correlate with susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion. 18th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Brisbanne, Australia. July 16-19.
2014 (May) Yeh, S. L., Lane, T., et al. Difference between eyes-closed and eyes-open resting state alpha power is an indicator of susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion. Vision Sciences Society 13th Annual Meeting. St. Pete, Florida, USA.
2013 (September) C. Y. Lin, G. Northoff, T. Lane, and N. S. Yen. “The neural correlates of hindsight bias in political elections and general knowledge events.” Society for Neuroeconomics Annual Meeting, Lausanne, Switzerland. September 27-29.
2013 (September) “Actions subjectively experienced are actions that seem not to belong to me.” Academia Sinica, International Conference on Language and Action. September 17-18.
2013 (July). Timothy Lane, Su-Ling Yeh, and An-Yi Chang. “Switching attention to the rubber hand.” 17th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. San Diego, USA. July 12-15.
2013 (July). Lee-Xieng Yang and Timothy Lane. “A computational model of the rubber hand illusion.” 17th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. San Diego, USA. July 12-15.
2013 (July 5). “Neuroethics: A personal view”. National Cheng Kung University, College of Medicine. Tainan, Taiwan.
2013 (March 26) “Science verifies philosophy, while philosophy enriches science.”
Invited Lecture. National Chengchi University, Office of Research and
2013 (February 15-28) “Alienation and self-presentation.” Invited Commenter for Special Session on Self-Consciousness. The 5th Online Consciousness Conference. http://consciousnessonline.com/
2013 (February 5-6) “Neurophilosophy: neuroscience and consciousness.” Workshop on neuroscience, the humanities, and the social sciences. The MRI Center, National Cheng Kung University.
2012 (December 4) “Estrangement Experiences.” International Workshop on Consciousness—Consciousness: neural predispositions, privacy, and entropy. Research Center for Mind, Brain, and Learning, National Chengchi University.
2012 (November 17-18) “The forensic self: self-, thick-, and exculpatory- experiences.” 2012 Conference on Normative Philosophy. Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica.
2012 (November 6, 2012) “Self, brain, and the experience of belonging.” Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica.
2012 (October 26, 2012) “‘Culture’ is too coarse-grained to play an explanatory role in science or philosophy.” International Conference on Mind Sciences, Humanity, and Culture. National Taiwan University College of Medicine.
2012 (October 14, 2012) Invited Talk: “Pathologies and illusions of belonging or estrangement and their implications for the understanding of self.” The 51st Annual Conference of the Taiwan Psychological Association.
2012 (September) Invited Talk: “The sub-personal self.” First Conference on Contemporary Philosophy in East Asia. Academia Sinica. Taipei, Taiwan.
2012 (September) An-Yi Chang, Timothy Lane, and Su-Ling Yeh. “Timing the rubber hand illusion: Owning the rubber hand involves substitution, not addition.” European Conference on Visual Perception, Alghero, Italy.
2012 (July) Invited Talk: “Mental Belonging as a Multi-Dimensional Phenomenon.” School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
2012 (July) Timothy Lane and Georg Northoff, “Mineness, minimal self, and self-related processing.” 16th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Brighton, UK. July 2-6. (Concurrent Talk)
2012 (March) “Self-relatedness and the ‘isomeric’ model of mental belonging.” Workshop on Neuroethics, Neurophilosophy, and Philosophy of Science. National Ching Hua University, Institute of Philosophy.
2012 (February) What fMRI studies reveal about consciousness. Workshop on Cognitive Neuroscience. National Chengchi University, Department of Psychology and the Research Institute for Mind, Brain, and Learning.
2011 (December) “Modeling the relationship between self and conscious mental states.” International Workshop on Self in Humans and Machines: Perspectives from Philosophy, Psychology, Neuroscience, and Robotics. National Chung Cheng University, Center for Research in Cognitive Science.
2011 (November) Neuroexistentialism: Platonic and Tertullian Conceptions of Belief. Conference on Normative Philosophy. Academia Sinica.
2011 (October) Pao-Chou Cho, Timothy Lane, and Su-Ling Yeh, “Action-Induced Rubber Hand Illusion,” 12th International Multisensory Research Forum, Tohoku University, Japan.
2011 (September) Kevin Wu and Timothy Lane, “Media Impact on Individual Suicidality: Could such an Experiment be Ethically Acceptable?” 12th Asian Bioethics Conference. National Taiwan University.
2011 (June 13-14) ‘Toward an explanatory framework for mental ownership.’ International Workshop on Self-Consciousness, National Yang Ming University.
2011 (June 9-12) ‘Self-Specificity and Mineness’ 15th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Kyoto, Japan. Also: Chair for session, “Theories and Models of Consciousness.”
2010 (December 10) ‘Self and Consciousness.’ National Yang Ming University.
2010 (November 19) ‘Media Impact on Individual Suicidality: A Proposal for an Ethical Neuroimaging Study’ Conference on Neuroscience, Mind, and Law, sponsored by the Center for Ethics, Law and Society of National Taiwan University.
2010 (October 25-26) ‘Self-Consciousness and the Rubber Hand Illusion.’ International Conference on Perception and Self-Consciousness. National Taiwan University.
2010 (August 17-20) ‘Self-Consciousness and Immunity.’ The 7th International Conference on Cognitive Science. Beijing, China.
2010 (June) ‘Mental Ownership Constrains the Rubber Hand Illusion’
14th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness.
Toronto, June 24-27. (Concurrent Talk)
2009 (November 21) ‘Positive Illusions and the Ethics of Belief.’ Neuroscience of Ethics and Decision Making: Philosophy, Ethics, and Policy Issues of “Seeing the Mind.” National Taiwan University.
2009 (November 1) ‘Self-Consciousness and Immunity’ Taiwan Logic and Analytic Philosophy Inaugural Conference. National Taiwan University.
2009 (June) ‘Somatoparaphrenia and Immunity to Error through Misidentification.’
13th Annual Meeting for the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness.
Berlin, June 5-8. (Concurrent Talk)
2009 (May) ‘Self-Consciousness and the Immunity Principle.’ Yang-Ming and Soochow Co-Workshop on Metaphysics. National Yang Ming University.
2009 (April) ‘The Intersection of Ethics and Neuroscience.’ Neuroscience, Ethics and Law II. National Taiwan University.
2008 (December) ‘A soft self with a hard core: prospects for the soft-assembly view of self.’ Conference: Body, Cognition and Meaning III. Academia Sinica, Institute of European and American Studies.
2008 (June) ‘Pathological self and the higher-order thought theory of consciousness.’ Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness 12.
2007 (October) ‘Eight questions in neuroethics.’ The Tenth Humanities Association Conference—Technology and Human Values. National Chengchi University.
2007 (August) ‘HOT and the problem posed by Anton’s Syndrome when accompanied by hallucinations.’ 13th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy.
2007 (June) ‘The explanatory inadequacy of higher-order thought theory of consciousness.’ Soochow Conference on Analytic Philosophy. Soochow University.
2007 (April) ‘Higher-order thought and the problem of radical confabulation.’ National Taiwan University Conference on Methodology and Philosophy of Science.
2006 (November) ‘Jaynes-Dennett-Rosenthal.’ The Third Conference on Experience and Truth. Soochow University.
2006 (May) ‘Tertullian Beliefs.’ International Conference on Naturalized Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Soochow University.